Climate Change Is Chipping Away at the Shellfish Industry

Oyster farmers, already suffering from losses caused by ocean acidification, are also on guard against bacteria that new research shows are increasing in lockstep with warming oceans. The IoT can help oyster producers address threats associated with warming waters in the short term, but the long-term fix will take more than technology.
By Mary Catherine O'Connor
Aug 10, 2016

Climate change is responsible for a number of threats to the U.S. shellfish industry. In recent years, Washington State's $270 million shellfish industry has been scrambling to address productivity losses due to ocean acidification, caused by a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions that began at the start of the industrial revolution. In highly acidic water, it is difficult for shellfish larvae to create shells from calcium carbonate because the water is too corrosive. In 2007 and 2008, Pacific Northwest shellfish larvae hatcheries saw their output plummet by up to 80 percent. By enacting strict water pH monitoring practices, these hatcheries have largely recovered, but the larger seafood industry is under threat as oceans continue to acidify, which threatens the health of wild shellfish as well as coral, which are vital parts of oceanic ecosystems.

Now, new research has illuminated another climate-related threat to the shellfish industry. Scientists have documented a link between warming seawater and an uptick in Vibrio bacteria. Humans who come into contact with these bacteria through various pathways, such as by consuming raw oysters that harbor the organisms or by swimming in water in which the bacteria live, can become very ill if the bacteria are present in high densities.

The study provides empirical evidence that a change in water temperature is the cause of the growth of Vibrio, but the correlation has long been suggested by medical evidence. According to an Associated Press article about the new study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that lab-confirmed Vibrio infections in the United States have increased from an annual average of about 390 in the late 1990s to 1,030 in recent years—and in those recent cases, an average of 100 infections per year prove fatal.

For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been considering requiring oyster producers to sterilize oysters pulled from the Gulf Coast, due to an increase in illnesses reported in that region, especially during the warmest months. In May, a consumer group filed a suit against the FDA, saying it is moving too slowly toward setting stricter regulations on oyster growers. But the East Coast Shellfish Growers Association (ECSGA) strongly resists any efforts to force growers to adopt sterilization techniques, even if only during part of the year and only along the Gulf Coast, on the grounds that this would diminish U.S. producers' competitive advantage.

On its website, the ECSGA posted the following: "As an industry our fear is that this is a slippery slope and the FDA really wants to mandate sterilization of all shellfish. This would open the door to cheap, sterilized shellfish from Asian nations where shellfish are grown in filth. Our only market advantage is that we can offer fresh live shellfish – once we lose that advantage our markets will evaporate."

The Associated Press' article about the study caught my attention because, earlier this summer, we reported on how Daniel Ward, an entrepreneur and researcher who operates a 10-acre aquaculture operation in Megansett Harbor, on Massachusetts' Cape Code, is experimenting with thermal cameras and temperature trackers, communicating over a cellular network provided by Verizon, to track the temperature of his oyster harvest—specifically to address the threat posed by Vibrio bacteria.

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